Precautions while using X Rays
Analytical X ray Systems
Analytical x ray machines (e.g., x ray diffraction, etc.) are used extensively for microstructure analysis in various research and teaching activities. Tubes for this purpose usually operate about 35 40 kV and 10 40 mA. In such equipment, the primary x ray beam is permitted to impinge on the specimen and the scattered radiation is measured by a radiation detector located at various angles with respect to the sample.