-v. 3. reduce to poverty, impoverish, pauperize, ruin, break, bankrupt, destroy financially. beggarly, adj. 1. mean, base, trashy, shabby, shoddy, dirty, filthy; miserable, wretched, vile, foul, sordid, scurvy, nasty; disgusting, contemptible,despicable, detestable.
2. inadequate, poor, sorry, sad, pitiful, pathetic; paltry, piddling, meager, mere, Inf. measly; small, puny, little, slight. beggary, n. 1. poverty, destitution, penury, indigence, impecuniousness, impecuniosity, pennilessness, neediness; insolvency, bankruptcy, liquidation; distress, straits, indebtedness; pauperism, pauperage, pauperdom, mendicancy, mendicity; lack, need, want, privation; paucity, dearth, shortage, deficiency, insufficiency, scarcity, default, absence.
2. beggars, rabble, riffraff. begin, v. 1. commence, start, go ahead, Inf. fire away, Inf. blast away; embark, set sail, set to or about, turn to, Inf. take off, Inf. jump off, Inf. kick off, Inf. blast off; take steps, get going, get a move on, get on the stick, start off, start out, move out, get the show on the road; start in, plunge in, Inf. pitch in, Inf. steam in, Inf. dive in, Inf. get one's feet wet, Inf get down to it, Inf get to it.
2. arise, rise, dawn, come into existence, come to be, take birth, see the light of day; issue forth, come forth, burst forth, break out; spring up, spring forth, crop up.
3. initiate, actuate, instigate, set in motion, start the ball rolling, take the first step, take the initiative, take the plunge, make a start, break the ice; open, pioneer, lead off; institute, inaugurate, found, establish, set up, organize, originate, break ground, lay the foundation, lay the first stone; introduce, launch, broach, usher in; create, beget, engender, father, conceive, give birth to, give rise to, sow the seeds of. beginner, n. 1. novice, novitiate, neophyte, tyro, amateur, rookie, greenhorn, tenderfoot, newcomer, new boy; student, pupil, freshman, learner, initiate, fledgling, apprentice, trainee; recruit, raw recruit, abecedarian, catechumen.
2. initiator, actuator, instigator, agent, originator, starter, mover, prime mover; founder, inaugurator, inventor, deviser, organizer; author, architect, conceiver, shaper, designer; creator, maker, producer, begetter, engenderer, parent, mother, father, sire. beginning, n. 1. initiation, actuation, instigation, creation, inception; institution, inauguration, introduction, constitution, establishment, origination, organization, foundation.
2. start, commencement, onset, outset, outbreak, dawn, conception, birth, genesis, exordium; Inf. kick-off, Inf. jump-off, Inf. send-off, Inf. take-off. Inf. blast-off; rise, arising, beginnings, emergence, incipience, nascence, infancy.
3. origin, source, first cause, starting point, square one; fountain, fountainhead, spring, mainspring; top, head.
-adj. 4. initial, early, incipient, introductory, inaugural; prime, primary, primal, primeval; elementary, fundamental, basic, rudimentary. begird, v. 1. bind, belt, truss, gird; wrap, swathe, swaddle, bandage; buckle, tie, pinion, fasten, couple.
2. encompass, surround, circumvent, circumscribe, environ, encircle, ring; confine, hem in, hedge, limit, bound, enclose; contain, corral, fence, picket, pen, box in, shut in.
My Account / Test History
Most children in England and Wales follow this route in the state system (= free education).
• You go to school (as a pupil to study) and go to university (as a student to study). You don’t use the definite article ‘the’ here. Other expressions like this are go to bed (to sleep); go into hospital (when you are ill); go to church (to pray / to worship).
• In some areas of the UK there are not many grammar schools.
• There are also public schools. In fact, these are private, and parents pay to send their children there. Some are expensive. About 5% of the population go to public schools.
A school timetable
Maths is an abbreviation of mathematics.
As you can see, the pupils have five lessons every day, and altogether they do (= study) eleven subjects a week plus Physical Education (PE). Every morning they have a twenty-minute break. There are three terms (= periods of continuous work) in a school year, and the timetable changes every year.
Note: Some words in English which end in ‘s’ look plural, but in fact they are singular: Maths isn’t my favourite subject, and physics is very difficult.
Most nouns of this type refer to subjects; other examples are economics and politics.