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ceiling / roof

The upper interior surface of a room is called the ceiling. The upper exterior surface of a building is called the roof.

A tall apartment building has many ceilings inside it, because each level has its own ceiling - but it only has one roof, at the very top.

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1. a / an / one
2. able / capable
3. accident / incident
4. accurate / exact / precise
5. ache / pain / hurt
6. actual / current / present
7. administrator / boss / manager
8. adverse / averse
9. advice / advise
10. affect / effect
11. afraid / scared / frightened
12. after / later
13. agenda / itinerary / schedule
14. ago / back / before
15. aid / assist / help
16. aim / goal / objective
17. alien / foreigner / stranger
18. alive / life / live
19. all / whole / every
20. all of / each of
21. all ready / already / all right / alright
22. allow / let / permit
23. allude / elude
24. almost / mostly / nearly
25. alone / lonely / only
26. already / yet
27. also / as well / too
28. altar / alter
29. although / though / even though
30. among / between
31. amoral / immoral
32. amount / number / quantity
33. ancient / antique
34. angry / upset
35. another / other / others
36. answer / reply / respond
37. any / some
38. apartment / flat / studio
39. apologize / sorry
40. apology / excuse
41. appraise / apprise
42. arrive / come / get / reach
43. as far as / as long as / as soon as
44. assure / ensure / insure
45. automobile / car / vehicle
46. await / wait / hope / expect
47. award / reward / prize
48. awkward / embarrassing
49. baggage / luggage
50. beach / coast / shore
51. beautiful / pretty
52. become / get / turn
53. been / gone
54. before / in front of / opposite / across from
55. beg / plead
56. begin / start
57. belong to / belong with / belong in
58. below / under / beneath / underneath
59. beside / besides
60. big / large
61. big / small / long / short / tall / huge / tiny
62. bill / invoice / receipt
63. blanket / comforter / quilt
64. borrow / lend / loan / owe
65. bother / disturb
66. bravery / courage
67. bring / take
68. bring up / grow up
69. Britain / England / the United Kingdom
70. broad / wide
71. by / until
72. can / could / able to
73. capital / capitol
74. carpet / mat / rug
75. ceiling / roof
76. chance / possibility / opportunity
77. change / switch
78. chauffeur / driver
79. city / downtown / town
80. classic / classical
81. clever / intelligent / smart
82. close / shut
83. close to / near / next to
84. cloth / clothes / clothing
85. collect / gather
86. come back / go back / get back
87. compliment / complement
88. concern / concerned / concerning
89. confident / confidant / confidence
90. continually / continuously
91. convince / persuade
92. could / should / would
93. council / counsel
94. critic / critical / criticism / critique
95. cure / treat / heal / recover
96. custom / habit
97. deadly / fatal / lethal
98. decent / descent / dissent
99. decline / deny / refuse / reject
100. defect / fault / flaw
101. definitely / definitively
102. delay / late / postpone
103. despite / in spite of
104. die / died / dead
105. difficult / hard
106. dilemma / quandary
107. dinner / supper / meal / snack
108. dirt / earth / soil
109. dirty / messy
110. disability / handicap / impairment
111. discover / find out / notice / realize
112. discreet / discrete
113. disease / illness
114. disinterested / uninterested
115. distinct / distinctive
116. do / make
117. dress / dressed / wear
118. during / while / meanwhile / meantime
119. e.g. / i.e.
120. early / soon
121. earn / gain / win
122. economic / economical
123. effective / efficient
124. either / neither
125. electric / electrical / electronic
126. empathy / sympathy
127. employees / staff
128. end / finish
129. enough / too
130. enquire / inquire
131. especially / specially
132. every day / everyday
133. ex- / former / previous
134. explore / exploit
135. extend / expand
136. famous / infamous
137. farther / further
138. fee / fare / tax
139. female / feminine / woman
140. few / little / less / fewer
141. fit / match / suit
142. floor / ground
143. for / since
144. forest / jungle / wood / woods
145. fun / funny
146. girl / lady / woman
147. good / well
148. good evening / good night
149. gratuity / tip
150. guarantee / warranty
151. gut / guts
152. hard / hardly
153. have / have got
154. have to / must / need to
155. haven't / don't have
156. hear / listen
157. hijack / kidnap
158. historic / historical
159. holiday / vacation
160. hope / wish
161. hopefully / thankfully
162. hostel / hotel / motel
163. house / home
164. how about...? / what about...?
165. human / humankind / human being / man / mankind
166. hundred / hundreds
167. I / my / me / mine / myself
168. I = subject
169. if / whether
170. If I was... / If I were...
171. ignore / neglect
172. ill / sick
173. impending / pending
174. imply / infer
175. in / into / inside / within
176. in / on / at
177. incite / insight
178. income / salary / wage
179. Indian / indigenous / Native American
180. inhabit / live / reside
181. intend / tend
182. interested / interesting
183. interfere / intervene
184. its / it's
185. job / work / career
186. just / only
187. kinds / types / sorts
188. know / meet
189. last / latest
190. last / past
191. late / lately
192. lay / lie
193. like / as
194. little / small
195. look / see / watch
196. lose / loose
197. lose / miss
198. made of / made from
199. marriage / married / wedding
200. may / might
201. moral / morale
202. Mr. / Mrs. / Ms. / Miss
203. music / song
204. nausea / nauseous / queasy
205. north / northern
206. notable / noticeable
207. ocean / sea / lake / pond
208. oppress / suppress / repress
209. overtake / take over
210. pass away / pass out
211. pass the time / spend time
212. peak / pique
213. persons / peoples
214. poison / venom
215. politics / policy
216. poor / pore / pour
217. pray / prey
218. principal / principle
219. problem / trouble
220. quiet / silent
221. raise / rise / arise
222. regard / regards / regardless
223. regretful / regrettable
224. relation / relationship
225. remember / remind / reminder
226. replace / substitute
227. resolve / solve
228. review / revise
229. rob / thief / steal
230. safety / security
231. sale / sell
232. say / tell / speak
233. scream / shout
234. sensible / sensitive
235. shade / shadow
236. so / such
237. so / very / a lot
238. some time / sometime / sometimes
239. stuff / things
240. such as / as such
241. suppose / supposed to
242. then / than
243. think about / think of
244. tide / waves
245. till / until
246. to / for
247. too / very
248. travel / trip / journey
249. United
250. wake / awake / sleep / asleep
251. wander / wonder
252. wary / weary
253. what / which
254. which / that
255. who / whom
256. will / would
257. worse / worst
258. year-old / years old
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  • Class 10 - Sources of Energy

  • Simple Science

    The Oil Lamp

    Artificial Lighting:
    The simple candle of our ancestors was now replaced by the oil lamp, which gave a brighter, steadier, and more permanent illumination. The principle of the lamp is similar to that of the candle, except that the wick is saturated with kerosene or oil rather than with fat. The heat from the burning wick is sufficient to change the oil into a gas and then to set fire to the gas. By placing a chimney over the burning wick, a constant and uniform draught of air is maintained around the blazing gases, and hence a steady, unflickering light is obtained. Gases and carbon particles are set free by the burning wick. In order that the gases may burn and the solid particle glow, a plentiful supply of oxygen is necessary. If the quantity of air is insufficient, the carbon particles remain unburned and form soot. A lamp "smokes" when the air which reaches the wick is insufficient to burn the rapidly formed carbon particles; this explains the danger of turning a lamp wick too high and producing more carbon particles than can be oxidized by the air admitted through the lamp chimney.

    One great disadvantage of oil lamps and oil stoves is that they cannot be carried safely from place to place. It is almost impossible to carry a lamp without spilling the oil. The flame soon spreads from the wick to the overflowing oil and in consequence the lamp blazes and an explosion may result. Candles, on the other hand, are safe from explosion; the dripping grease is unpleasant but not dangerous.

    The illumination from a shaded oil lamp is soft and agreeable, but the trimming of the wicks, the refilling of bowls, and the cleaning of chimneys require time and labor. For this reason, the introduction of gas met with widespread success. The illumination from an ordinary gas jet is stronger than that from an ordinary lamp, and the stronger illumination added to the greater convenience has made gas a very popular source of light.


    Chourishi Systems