### past time: present perfect simple

• Forms
 Affirmative Question Negative I have worked you have worked, etc have I worked? have you worked? etc I have not worked you have not worked, etc
• Meaning
We use the present perfect simple to say that something in the past is connected with the present in some way.
If we say that something has happened, we are thinking about the past and the present at the same time.
We could often change a present perfect sentence into a present sentence with the same meaning.
I've broken my leg. = My leg is broken now.
Have you read the Bible? = Do you know the Bible?
We do not use the present perfect simple if we are not thinking about the present.
I saw Lucy yesterday.
(NOT I have seen Lucy yesterday.)
• Finished actions: result now
We often use the present perfect to talk about finished actions, when we are thinking of their present consequences: the results that they have now.
Somebody has shot the manager.
FINISHED ACTION
RESULT NOW
Other examples:
I've broken my leg.
Do you know the Bible? Baby.
I can't walk.
War.
FINISHED ACTION
RESULT NOW
We often use the present perfect to give news.
And here are the main points of the news again. The pound has fallen against the dollar. The Prime Minister has said that the government's economic policies are working. The number of unemployed has reached five million. There has been a fire . . .
• Finished actions: time up to now
We often use the present perfect to ask if something has ever happened; to say that it has happened before-, or that it has never happened; or not since a certain date; or not fora certain period; to ask if it has happened yet; or to say that it has happened already.
Have you ever seen a ghost?
>?EVER^EVER[^~EVER~^ EVERf°°) EVERp] EVER?^>
NOW
I've never seen a ghost.
>NEVER^NEVER^ NEVER j^NEVERj^NEVER ^j~^> NOW
I 'm sure we've met before We haven't had a holiday for ages.
I haven't seen Peter since Christmas.
Has Ann come yet? 'Yes, she has already arrived '
• Repeated actions up to now
We use the present perfect to say that something has happened several times up to the present.
I've written six letters since lunchtime.
PAST-
NOW
How often have you been in love in your life?
• Actions and states continuing up to now
We use the present perfect to talk about actions, states and situations which started in the past and still continue.
PAST
PAST
PAST
PAST
PAST
 I've studied hard for years. > NOW I've known him since 1960. > NOW I've always liked you. > NOW How long have you been here? > NOW We've always lived here. > NOW
We also use the present perfect progressive in this way.
For the difference, see 244.4.
Do not use the simple present to say how long something has gone on.
I've known him since 1960. (NOT I know him . . .)
• Present perfect not used
We do not use the present perfect with adverbs of finished time (like yesterday, last week, then, three years ago, in 1960).
I saw Lucy yesterday (NOT I have seen Lucy yesterday.)
Tom was ill last week (NOT -Tom has been ill last week.)
What did you do then? (NOT What have you done then?)
She died three years ago (NOT She has died three years ago.)
He was born in 1960 (NOT -He has been bom in 1960.)
We do not use the present perfect in 'narrative' — when we tell stories, or give details of past events.
For the structure This is the first time I have ....
• 'copula1 verbs
• 'social' language
• (a) few and (a) little
• (be) used to + noun or... -ing
• (Great) Britain, the United Kingdom, the British Isles and England
• -ing form ('gerund')
• -ing form after to
• -ing form or infinitive?
• abbreviations
• above and over
• across and over
• across and through
• active verb forms
• actual(ly)
• after (conjunction)
• after all
• afternoon, evening and night
• ages
• ago
• all (of) with nouns and pronouns
• all and every
• all and whole
• all right
• all with verbs
• all, everybody and everything
• almost and nearly
• also, as well and too
• although and though
• among and between
• and
• and after try, wait, go etc
• another
• any (= 'it doesn't matter which')
• appear
• articles: a and an; pronunciation of the
• articles: a/an
• articles: countable and uncountable nouns
• articles: introduction
• articles: special rules and exceptions
• articles: talking in general
• articles: the
• articles: the difference between a/an and the
• as and like
• as if and as though
• as much/many ... as ...
• as well as
• as, because and since (reason)
• as, when and while (things happening at the same time)
• as...as ...
• at all
• at, in and on (place)
• at, in and on (time)
• be + infinitive
• be with auxiliary do
• be: progressive tenses
• because and because of
• before (conjunction)
• before (preposition) and in front of
• begin and start
• big, large, great and tall
• born
• borrow and lend
• both (of) with nouns and pronouns
• both with verbs
• both... and...
• bring and take
• British and American English
• but = except
• by: time
• can and could: ability
• can and could: forms
• can with remember, understand, speak, play, see, hear, feel, taste and smell
• can: permission, offers, requests and orders
• can: possibility and probability
• close and shut
• come and go
• comparison: comparative and superlative adjectives
• comparison: comparative and superlative adverbs
• comparison: much, far etc with comparatives
• comparison: using comparatives and superlatives
• conditional
• conjunctions
• contractions
• countable and uncountable nouns
• country
• dare
• dates
• determiners
• discourse markers
• do + -ing
• do and make
• do: auxiliary verb
• during and for
• during and in
• each and every
• each other and one another
• each: grammar
• either... or...
• either: determiner
• ellipsis (leaving words out)
• else
• emphasis
• emphatic structures with it and what
• enjoy
• enough
• even
• eventual(ly)
• ever
• every and every one
• except
• except and except for
• exclamations
• excuse me, pardon and sorry
• expect, hope, look forward, wait, want and wish
• explain
• fairly, quite, rather and pretty
• far and a long way
• farther and further
• fast
• feel
• fewer and less
• for + object + infinitive
• for, since, from, ago and before
• for: purpose
• future perfect
• future progressive
• future: introduction
• future: present progressive and going to
• future: shall and will (interpersonal uses)
• future: shall/will (predictions)
• future: simple present
• gender (masculine and feminine language)
• get (+ object) + verb form
• get and go: movement
• go ... -ing
• go meaning'become'
• go: been and gone
• half (of)
• hard and hardly
• have (got) to
• have (got): possession, relationships etc
• have + object + verb form
• have: actions
• have: auxiliary verb
• have: introduction
• hear and listen (to)
• help
• here and there
• holiday and holidays
• home
• hope
• how and what... like?
• if only
• if so and if not
• if-sentences with could and might
• if: ordinary tenses
• if: special tenses
• ill and sick
• imperative
• in and into (prepositions)
• in case
• in spite of
• indeed
• infinitive after who, what, how etc
• infinitive of purpose
• infinitive without to
• infinitive: negative, progressive, perfect, passive
• infinitive: use
• inversion: auxiliary verb before subject
• inversion: whole verb before subject
• irregular verbs
• it's time
• it: preparatory object
• it: preparatory subject
• last and the last
• let's
• letters
• likely
• long and for a long time
• look
• look (at), watch and see
• marry and divorce
• may and might: forms
• may and might: permission
• may and might: probability
• mind
• modal auxiliary verbs
• more (of): determiner
• most (of): determiner
• much (of), many (of): determiners
• much, many, a lot etc
• must and have to; mustn't, haven't got to, don't have to, don't need to and needn't
• must: deduction
• must: forms
• must: obligation
• names and titles
• nationality words
• need
• negative questions
• negative structures
• neither (of): determiner
• neither, nor and not... either
• neither... nor...
• next and nearest
• next and the next
• no and none
• no and not
• no and not a/not any
• no more, not any more, no longer, not any longer
• non-progressive verbs
• noun + noun
• numbers
• once
• one and you: indefinite personal pronouns
• one: substitute word
• other and others
• ought
• own
• participle clauses
• participles: 'present' and 'past' participles (-ing and -ed)
• passive structures: introduction
• passive verb forms
• past tense with present or future meaning
• past time: past perfect simple and progressive
• past time: past progressive
• past time: present perfect progressive
• past time: present perfect simple
• past time: simple past
• past time: the past and perfect tenses (introduction)
• perfect tenses with this is the first time..., etc
• personal pronouns (I, me, it etc)
• play and game
• possessive with determiners (a friend of mine, etc)
• possessive's: forms
• possessive's: use
• possessives: my and mine, etc
• prepositional verbs and phrasal verbs
• prepositions after particular words and expressions
• prepositions at the end of clauses
• prepositions before particular words and expressions
• prepositions: expressions without prepositions
• present tenses: introduction
• present tenses: present progressive
• present tenses: simple present
• progressive tenses with always
• punctuation: apostrophe
• punctuation: colon
• punctuation: comma
• punctuation: dash
• punctuation: quotation marks
• punctuation: semi-colons and full stops
• question tags
• questions: basic rules
• questions: word order in spoken questions
• quite
• real(ly)
• reflexive pronouns
• relative pronouns
• relative pronouns: what
• relative pronouns: whose
• relatives: identifying and non-identifying clauses
• remind
• reported speech and direct speech
• reported speech: orders, requests, advice etc
• reported speech: pronouns; 'here and now' words; tenses
• reported speech: questions
• requests
• say and tell
• see
• seem
• shall
• should
• should after why and how
• should and would
• should, ought and must
• should: (If I were you) I should ...
• similar words
• since (conjunction of time): tenses
• singular and plural: anybody etc
• singular and plural: irregular plurals
• singular and plural: plural expressions with singular verbs
• singular and plural: pronunciation of plural nouns
• singular and plural: singular words ending in -s
• singular and plural: singular words with plural verbs
• singular and plural: spelling of plural nouns
• slow(ly)
• small and little
• smell
• so am I, so do I etc
• so and not with hope, believe etc
• some and any
• some/any and no article
• some: special uses
• somebody and anybody, something and anything, etc
• sound
• spelling and pronunciation
• spelling: -ise and -ize
• spelling: -ly
• spelling: capital letters
• spelling: ch and tch, k and ck
• spelling: doubling final consonants
• spelling: final -e
• spelling: full stops with abbreviations
• spelling: hyphens
• spelling: ie and ei
• spelling: y and i
• subject and object forms
• subjunctive
• such and so
• suggest
• surely
• sympathetic
• take
• take (time)
• tall and high
• taste
• telephoning
• telling the time
• tenses in subordinate clauses
• that: omission
• the same
• there is
• think
• this and that
• too
• travel, journey and trip
• unless and if not
• until and by
• until and to
• used to + infinitive
• verbs with object complements
• verbs with two objects
• way
• weak and strong forms
• well
• when and if
• whether and if
• whether... or...
• which, what and who: question words
• who ever, what ever, how ever etc
• whoever, whatever, whichever, however, whenever and wherever
• will
• wish
• worth ... -ing
• would
• would rather
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• Largest Zoos in the World
• Benefits of Bitter Gourd
• Benefits of Plum
• Movie Locations You Can Actually Visit
• Christmas Poems

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